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Fluidized bed boilers are used in the manufacturing industry to limit emissions as well as waste to the environment. So what is the structure and working principle of fluidized bed boiler? Follow Zero Waste to follow the following article.

Structure of a boiler system

Cấu tạo lò hơi tầng sôi
Structure of fluidized bed boiler
The important part of a fluidized bed boiler is the combustion chamber. In terms of shape, this combustion chamber is quite similar to the combustion chamber of a fossil fuel boiler. However, the combustion chamber of the fluidized bed boiler has been improved and more modern. That helps to burn more fuel and make the most of the heat generated during combustion. To ensure smooth operation of the fluidized bed boiler, a cyclone is indispensable. This is where the circulation of the boiler is taken care of. In particular, the difference of this cyclone lies in the point of exhaust smoke. Part of the exhaust gas when leaving the combustion chamber, if there are remaining unburnt particles, it will be recirculated to the combustion chamber and continue the combustion process. The last basic part is the boiler tail. The hot gas streams pass through the cyclone and to the tail end of the furnace. At the tail of the boiler, there are also systems to filter dust and exhaust gas before going to the outside environment.

Working principle of fluidized bed boiler

Zero Waste is a pioneer in providing fluidized bed boiler solutions with modern technology, helping businesses achieve economic efficiency and fulfill environmental and social obligations. With European standard technology, Zero Waste’s boiler system can automatically operate, saving a large amount of money for businesses. The principle of operation of the fluidized bed boiler is as follows:
  • When the biomass boiler operation takes place, the feed system circulates the combustion fuel through a feeding hopper to enter the combustion chamber.
  • Inside the combustion chamber, the fuel is in contact with solids (slag, ash, sand, etc.) available at high temperature to self-ignite and gradually generate heat.
  • The generated heat will be supplied to the combustion chamber, passing through radiant heat pipes. The water in these tubes moves and under the action of heat to produce steam – saturated steam energy for production.
  • The next fluidized bed boiler operation is flue gas filtration. Tiny dust particles generated from the combustion process will be blown up and, according to the movement of hot air, pushed to the top of the boiler, then sucked out of the furnace by the fan at a speed of 15m/ S. Then the hot air stream consisting of small dust particles passes through the water heater and then to the cyclone.
  • Dust particles from 5 µm are trapped in the primary and combinatorial cyclones. Smaller particles continue to go to the dust filter cyclone and are trapped in the wet filter cyclone.
  • Slag and boiler waste will be collected in one place automatically.
Nguyên lý hoạt động lò hơi tầng sôi
Working principle of fluidized bed boiler
With the operation of the closed fluidized bed boiler, the efficient dust-filtering exhaust gas treatment system has helped businesses achieve high economic efficiency and improve environmental problems.


Currently, biomass boilers are noticed by many businesses and put into common applications in factories. All thanks to the advantages of the boiler: high performance, competitive price and investment costs, but less harmful waste to the environment.
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